Describe corporate social responsibility

corporate social responsibility
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a term used to describe a company’s commitment to contributing positively to the society in which it operates. It involves taking responsibility for the company’s impact on the environment, consumers, employees, shareholders, and other stakeholders. In other words, CSR is a way for companies to make a positive difference in society beyond just making profits.



According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), “Corporate social responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large.”

The European Commission defines CSR as “a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.”



CSR is based on the idea that businesses have a responsibility to operate in a way that benefits society, as well as their shareholders. This means that companies need to consider the impact of their decisions and actions on stakeholders, such as employees, customers, suppliers, the environment, and the wider community. CSR is not just about philanthropy or charity; it is about companies making a real and measurable positive impact on society.

There are several areas where companies can focus their CSR efforts:

Environmental sustainability:

This includes reducing carbon emissions, conserving resources, minimizing waste, and protecting biodiversity.

Social welfare:

This includes supporting education, healthcare, and other social initiatives that benefit local communities.

Ethical business practices:

This includes promoting transparency, accountability, and fairness in all aspects of the business.

Human rights:

This includes respecting the rights of workers, suppliers, and customers, as well as combating discrimination and promoting diversity.




This outdoor clothing company has a strong commitment to environmental sustainability. It uses recycled materials in its products, supports environmental campaigns, and donates 1% of its sales to environmental organizations.

Ben & Jerry’s:

This ice cream company has a long-standing commitment to social justice. It supports fair trade, environmental sustainability, and social welfare initiatives, and donates a portion of its profits to charitable organizations.


This beverage company has a wide range of CSR initiatives, including water stewardship, women’s empowerment, and community development programs.


Case studies:


This global consumer goods company has made sustainability a core part of its business strategy. Its Sustainable Living Plan includes targets to reduce its environmental impact, improve health and wellbeing, and enhance the livelihoods of millions of people around the world. Unilever’s efforts have been recognized with numerous awards and accolades, including being named the top ranked company in the 2020 Dow Jones Sustainability Index.


This athletic apparel company faced criticism in the 1990s over allegations of sweatshop labor in its factories overseas. In response, Nike launched a comprehensive CSR program called the “Nike Considered Index” to improve working conditions and environmental sustainability across its global supply chain. Today, Nike is recognized as a leader in CSR and sustainability in the apparel industry.


This food and beverage company has faced criticism over its business practices, including allegations of child labor and environmental damage. In response, Nestle launched a program called “Creating Shared Value” to address these issues and promote sustainable development in its operations. The program includes initiatives to improve water management, support smallholder farmers, and promote rural development.


In conclusion, CSR is an important concept that encourages businesses to take responsibility for their impact on society and the environment. By integrating social and environmental concerns into their business operations, companies can make a positive difference in the world while also benefiting their bottom line. From environmental sustainability to social welfare, ethical business practices, and human rights, there are many areas where companies can focus their CSR efforts. Examples such as Patagonia, Ben & Jerry’s, and Coca-Cola demonstrate how companies can integrate CSR into their business practices.

Case studies of companies like Unilever, Nike, and Nestle show the importance of CSR in responding to criticisms and improving their operations. Unilever’s Sustainable Living Plan has earned them numerous awards and recognition, while Nike’s Considered Index has improved working conditions and environmental sustainability in their global supply chain. Nestle’s Creating Shared Value program has also addressed concerns around child labor and environmental damage.

Overall, CSR is a concept that promotes the idea of business as a force for good in society. By taking responsibility for their impact on society and the environment, companies can contribute positively to their communities and stakeholders, while also creating long-term value for their shareholders.